In its concern with efficiency and improvement, public administration has focused frequently on questions of formal organization. Yet, at the same time the government expects the administrator to use resources judiciously and to apply professional expertise in the solution of national problems.
Organization Organization is defined in many ways and each definition tries to reflect a particular perspective which scholars adopt about organizations.
Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. Second-generation theorists drew upon private management practices for administrative sciences.
Another effect of this international communication and sharing of experiences has been the realization that development is not exclusive to the so-called underdeveloped countries.
No clear definition has been given of bureaucracy than that of the eminent German sociologist, Max Weber, according to him: Education and training European universities have traditionally produced administrative lawyers for their governments, but legal skills alone are hardly adequate for handling contemporary problems.
Under such conditions efficiency suffers.
The Hoover Commissionchaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlowto examine reorganization of government. Such planning has become a dominating concern of public administration in many of the developing countries.
During the Great Depression of the s, and even more so during World War II, however, it became increasingly evident that many new policies originated within the administration, that policy and value judgments were implicit in most significant administrative decisions, that many administrative officials worked on nothing except policy, and that, insofar as public policies were controversial, such work inevitably involved administrators in politics.
It has also become apparent how parochial and culture-bound styles of public administration have often remained within individual countries.
By the late s the IIAS had a membership drawn from some 70 countries. Source National Open University of Nigeria. It has also become somewhat confused as a result of certain inconsistencies in approach.
However, the dominance of this dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the s. Fayol developed a systematic, point treatment of private management.
This originated in the s when what became known as the Hawthorne researchinvolving the workers and management of an industrial plant near Chicago, brought out the importance to productivity of social or informal organizationgood communications, individual and group behaviourand attitudes as distinct from aptitudes.
He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method.
Later on, the human factor became a predominant concern and emphasis in the study of public administration. Until World War II there was relatively little exchange among nations of ideas about public administration.
Public administration, however, takes place under conditions of job security for the civil servants. A number of techniques have been introduced to make decisions more rational. Thus public administrators are under constant public pressure; their attention is divided; and they are distracted.Public administration - Principles of public administration: Throughout the 20th century the study and practice of public administration has been essentially pragmatic and normative rather than theoretical and value free.
This may explain why public administration, unlike some social sciences, developed without much concern about an encompassing theory.
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public administration: concepts and practice i. concepts and definitions graduate school of asia and pacific studies university of waseda, tokyo-japan 2. contents what is public administration what is administration?
the universality of administration characteristics of administration organization management what is public? BASIC CONCEPTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION In this unit, attention has been focused at understanding the basic concepts in public administration.
Bureaucracy. The term bureaucracy is often heard and used in connection with the conduct of public affairs and the activities of public officials in particular. What exactly is the meaning of the term?
"Public Administration: Concepts and Cases is a wonderful tool for introducing students to the deep intellectual roots of public administration and demonstrating to them the relevance of our theoretical foundations for solving the complex problems that characterize the practice public management."/5(5).
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance.Download