Warfare was quite formalised, slow paced, with low casualties and a high level of hostage taking, and tended to encourage a balance of power. Charles V faced the embarrassing situation of having the Pope as his virtual prisoner.
His Swiss troops insisted on an immediate attack on the Imperial forces and suffered a heavy defeat at Bicocca 27 April This book is a major contribution to this re-evaluation, and will be essential reading for all students of Renaissance and military history.
Spain was eventually replaced by Austria after the extinction of the Spanish Hapsburgs. Genoa was generally a republic, although with constant internal strife.
He also married Eleanor of Austria, the sister of Charles V. During this period the extent of Papal control of the Papal States varied greatly, with some areas ruled by military strongmen, others under more direct Papal control, and frequent invasions from outside in particular from Venice.
Her books include Julius II: However, in the first battle of that first Italian war—the battle of Fornovo on 6 July  —Ludovico Sforza suddenly and unexpectedly changed sides—thus, joining the Venetians and the Kingdom of Naples against the French and Spanish. Charles took Aix on August 13,but could go no further because the French Army blocked all roads leading to Marseilles.
It began with a French attempt to press a claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but soon expanded into a general clash between the houses of Valois and Habsburg, and in particular between Francis I of France and the Emperor Charles V. This restored the situation at the start of the war, while Francis once again renounced his claims to Flanders, Artois and Naples.
The French were forced to retreat into Venetian territory, while the victorious Imperial forces captured the French base at Genoa.
The French then planned a two-pronged invasion of the Netherlands. Christine Shaw has published extensively on the political and military society of Renaissance Italy.
As Charles moved north a Franco-Turkish fleet attacked and sacked the Imperial city of Nice, then the Turks spent the winter at Toulon as guests of the French. Sforza remained in power in Milan, but the duchy would pass to Charles after his death.
After this most of the combatants made peace, starting with Pope Leo X December The Barbary Pirates had recently expanded from Algiers to Tunis and now threatened the Italian coast.
Although it was agreed that Louis XII should assume the throne of Naples, Louis and the monarchs of Spain soon quarreled over the division of the rest of the spoils. InPope Julius II arranged an aggressive alliance, the League of Cambrai, nominally aimed at the Ottomans but in fact intended to reduce or at least contain Venice.
Italian War of — Detail of a tapestry depicting the Battle of Pavia, woven from a cartoon by Bernard van Orley c. But Charles won at Seminara in June and still held Naples. This was called the "Angevin inheritance. In the following month Doria captured Genoa, which then became a major Imperial naval base.
This time the defeat was complete: Thus, both Ferdinand and his uncle, Frederick IV, were considered illegitimate inheritors and usurpers of the Neapolitan title that rightly belonged to the king of France, now Louis XII. The process started in November when Pope Julius agreed an alliance with the Emperor Maximilian, at the same time reducing his support for Venice.
By now the Pope was worried about the danger of foreign domination in Italy, and began to form a new Holy League. The Italians were the big losers, with large parts of the country falling into foreign hands.
The lateMichael Mallett was Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Warwick and a distinguished historian of fifteenth and sixteenth century Italy. Imperial reinforcements arrived in time to prevent the fall of the city.The Italian Wars of had a major impact on the whole of Renaissance Europe.
In this important text, Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw place the conflict within the political and economic context of the wars. Emphasising the gap between aims and strategies of the political masters and what /5(37).
The Italian Wars of had a major impact on the whole of Renaissance Europe. In this important text, Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw place the conflict within the political and economic context of the wars/5(5).
Italian Wars, (–) series of violent wars for control of Italy. Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe.
The wars began with the invasion of Italy by the French king Charles VIII in The Italian Wars of had a major impact on the whole of Renaissance Europe. In this important text, Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw place the conflict within the political and economic context of the wars.
His lucid account of the age of the condottieri - the mercenary captains of fortune - and of the soldiers who fought under them is set in the wider context of the Italian society of the time and of the warring city-states who employed them.
The Second Italian War (–), sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War or the War over Naples, was the second of the Italian Wars; it was fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, with the participation of several Italian powers.Download